Exploring the concepts of spirituality IV: Roots in Hinduism

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Hindu monk in Bangladesh [Courtesy: Wikimedia Commons]
Beginning with an attempt to explain why spirituality is such a craze today, we then explored the roots of spirituality in Judaism and in Christianity. Moving towards the East, Margaret Chatterjee finds that despite its pre-Christian roots, the concept of spirituality is essentially a Christian one in character. If we are to borrow this concept to other cultures, then we ought to be a bit careful.

The closest root terms that we have to spirit and spirituality in the Indic group of religions are atman and sadhana. While the Christians distinguish between the human spirit and the Holy Spirit (with a capital S), the atman does not see any such distinction. Sadhana shares a similarity with spirituality in that both refer to a path or a goal. Yet Sadhana has its goal as moksha or liberation, while Christian spirituality talks about salvation or redemption from sin which finds no mention in Hindu theology (say, the Upanishads). Continue reading “Exploring the concepts of spirituality IV: Roots in Hinduism”

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Exploring the concept of spirituality II: Roots in Judaism

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Moses & the burning bush – 1920 Painting by Gebhard Fugel [Courtesy: Wikimedia Commons]
As we saw previously, understanding the concept of spirituality requires a journey into exploring how the idea of the spirit developed historically, as Margaret Chatterjee suggests in her book, The Concept of Spirituality.

 

If we consider the starting point of what we call today “spirit”, (early) Judaism talks about the term Nephesh in the Hebrew Bible. Nephesh is considered the source of human vitality; it is nephesh which concretely defines the human as a being possessing life, which is a gift of God. Since Jews (and Christians among others) believe that it was God who gave them life (nephesh) and it was God who created the world, the Jews did not see any need to question the sanctity of the materialistic world or to withdraw from a problematic world (as opposed to what prominent gurus suggest today). Continue reading “Exploring the concept of spirituality II: Roots in Judaism”